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Senate Proceeding on Feb 26th, 2007 :: 0:03:31 to 0:53:58
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Mark Pryor

0:03:18 to 0:03:31( Edit History Discussion )

Mark Pryor: george washington's farewell address. mr. corker: mr. president, thank you for this. this is quite an honor and something that i think a lot of americans could draw a great deal of wisdom from.

Bob Corker

0:03:31 to 0:03:44( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: i will begin this great farewell address that has been our custom now for many, many years. friends and fellow citizens: the period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government

Bob Corker

0:03:44 to 0:03:58( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the united states being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me

Bob Corker

0:03:58 to 0:04:13( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: proper, especially as it may conduce to a more distinct expression of the public voice, that i should now apprise you of the resolution i have formed to decline being considered among the number of those

Bob Corker

0:04:13 to 0:04:31( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: out of whom a choice is to be made. i beg you, at the same time, to do me the justice to be assured that this resolution has not been taken without a strict regard to all the considerations appertaining

Bob Corker

0:04:31 to 0:04:45( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to the relation which binds a dutiful citizen to his country; and that in withdrawing the tender of service, which silence in my situation might imply, i am influenced by no diminution of zeal for your future

Bob Corker

0:04:45 to 0:05:00( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: interest, no deficiency of grateful respect for your past kindness, but am supported by a full conviction that the step is compatible with both. the acceptance of and continuance hitherto in the office

Bob Corker

0:05:00 to 0:05:16( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to which your suffrages have twice called me have been a uniform sacrifice of inclination to the opinion of duty and to a deference for what appeared to be your desire. i constantly hoped that it

Bob Corker

0:05:16 to 0:05:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: would have been much earlier in my power, consistently with motives which i was not at liberty to disregard, to return to that retirement from which i had been reluctantly drawn. the strength of my inclination

Bob Corker

0:05:29 to 0:05:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to do this previous to the last election had even led to the preparation of an address to declare it to you; but mature reflection on the then-perplexed and critical posture of our affairs with foreign

Bob Corker

0:05:46 to 0:06:03( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: nations, and the unanimous advice of persons entitled to my confidence, impelled me to abandon the idea. i rejoice that the state of your concerns, external as well as internal, no longer renders the pursuit

Bob Corker

0:06:03 to 0:06:19( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of inclination incompatible with the sentiment of duty or propriety and am persuaded, whatever partiality may be retained for my services, that in the present circumstances of our country you will not disapprove

Bob Corker

0:06:19 to 0:06:33( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: my determination to retire. the impressions with which i first undertook the arduous trust were explained on the proper occasion. in the discharge of this trust, i will only say that i have, with good

Bob Corker

0:06:33 to 0:06:48( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: intentions, contributed toward the organization and administration of the government the best exertions of which a very fallible judgment was capable. not unconscious in the outset of the inferiority of

Bob Corker

0:06:48 to 0:07:04( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: my qualifications, experience in my own eyes, perhaps still more in the eyes of others, has strengthened the motives to diffidence of myself; and every day the increasing weight of years admonishes

Bob Corker

0:07:04 to 0:07:19( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: me more and more that the shade of retirement is as necessary to me as it will be welcome. satisfied that if any circumstances have given peculiar value to my services they were temporary, i have

Bob Corker

0:07:19 to 0:07:30( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the consolation to believe that while choice and prudence invite me to quit the political scene, patriotism does not forbid it. in looking forward to the moment which is intended to terminate the

Bob Corker

0:07:30 to 0:07:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: career of my political life, my feelings do not permit me to suspend the deep acknowledgment of that debt of gratitude which i owe to my beloved country for the many honors it has conferred upon me;

Bob Corker

0:07:46 to 0:08:01( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: still more for the steadfast confidence with which it has supported me; and for the opportunities i have thence enjoyed of manifesting my inviolable attachment by services faithful and persevering, though

Bob Corker

0:08:01 to 0:08:14( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: in usefulness unequal to my zeal. if benefits have resulted to our country from these services, let it always be remembered to your praise, and as an instructive example in our annals, that under

Bob Corker

0:08:14 to 0:08:31( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: circumstances in which the passions, agitated in every direction, were liable to mislead -- amidst appearances sometimes dubious, vicissitudes of fortune often discouraging, in situations in which,

Bob Corker

0:08:31 to 0:08:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: not infrequently, want of success has countenanced the spirit of criticism -- the constancy of your support was the essential prop of the efforts and a guaranty of the plans by which they were effected.

Bob Corker

0:08:46 to 0:09:02( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: profoundly penetrated with this idea, i shall carry it with me to my grave as a strong incitement to unceasing vows that heaven may continue to you the choicest tokens of its beneficence; that your

Bob Corker

0:09:02 to 0:09:15( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: union and brotherly affection may be perpetual; that the free constitution, which is the work of your hands, may be sacredly maintained; that its administration in every department may be stamped with wisdom

Bob Corker

0:09:15 to 0:09:33( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and virtue; that, in fine, the happiness of the people of these states, under the auspices of liberty, may be made complete by so careful a preservation and so prudent a use of this blessing as

Bob Corker

0:09:33 to 0:09:47( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: will acquire to then the glory of recommending it to the applause, the affection, and adoption of every nation which is yet a stranger to it. here, perhaps, i ought to stop. but a solicitude for your

Bob Corker

0:09:47 to 0:10:10( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: welfare, which cannot end but with my life, and the apprehension of danger natural to that solicitude urge me, on an occasion like the present, to offer to your solemn contemplation and to recommend

Bob Corker

0:10:10 to 0:10:27( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to your frequent review some sentiments which are the result of much reflection, of no inconsiderable observation, and which appear to me all important to the permanency of your felicity as a people.

Bob Corker

0:10:27 to 0:10:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: these will be offered to you with the more freedom, as you can only see in them the disinterested warnings of a parting friend who can possibly have no personal motive to bias his counsel. nor can i

Bob Corker

0:10:46 to 0:11:00( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: forget, as an encouragement to it, your indulgent reception of my sentiments on a former and not dissimilar occasion. interwoven as is the love of liberty with every ligament of your hearts, no recommendation

Bob Corker

0:11:00 to 0:11:15( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of mine is necessary to fortify or confirm the attachment. the unity of government, which constitutes you one people, is also now dear to you. it is justly so; for it is a main pillar in the edifice

Bob Corker

0:11:15 to 0:11:28( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of your real independence, the support of your tranquillity at home, your peace abroad, of your safety, of your prosperity, of that very liberty which you so highly prize. but as it is easy to foresee

Bob Corker

0:11:28 to 0:11:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: that from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken, many artifices employed, to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth -- as this is the point in your political

Bob Corker

0:11:46 to 0:12:03( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: fortress against which the batteries of internal and external enemies will be most constantly and actively (though often covertly and insidiously) directed -- it is of infinite moment that you should

Bob Corker

0:12:03 to 0:12:20( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: properly estimate the immense value of your national union to your collective and individual happiness; that you should cherish a cordial, habitual, and immovable attachment to it; accustoming yourselves

Bob Corker

0:12:20 to 0:12:37( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to think and speak of it as of the palladium of your political safety and prosperity; watching for its preservation with jealous anxiety; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can

Bob Corker

0:12:37 to 0:12:53( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: in any event be abandoned; and indignantly frowning upon the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now link together

Bob Corker

0:12:53 to 0:13:11( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the various parts. for this you have every inducement of sympathy and interest. citizens -- by birth or choice -- of a common country, that country has a right to concentrate your affections. the name

Bob Corker

0:13:11 to 0:13:27( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of american, which belongs to you in your national capacity, must always exalt the just pride of patriotism more than any appellation derived from local discriminations. with slight shades of difference,

Bob Corker

0:13:27 to 0:13:43( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: you have the same religion, manners, habits, and political principles. you have, in a common cause, fought and triumphed together. the independence and liberty you possess are the work of joint councils

Bob Corker

0:13:43 to 0:13:59( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and joint efforts, of common dangers, sufferings, and successes. but these considerations, however powerfully they address themselves to your sensibility, are greatly outweighed by those which apply

Bob Corker

0:13:59 to 0:14:12( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: more immediately to your interest. here every portion of our country finds the most commanding motives for carefully guarding and preserving the union of the whole. the north, in an unrestrained intercourse

Bob Corker

0:14:12 to 0:14:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: with the south, protected by the equal laws of a common government, finds in the productions of the latter great additional resources of maritime and commercial enterprise and precious materials of

Bob Corker

0:14:29 to 0:14:43( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: manufacturing industry. the south, in the same intercourse, benefiting by the same agency of the north, sees its agriculture grow and its commerce expand. turning partly into its own channels the seamen

Bob Corker

0:14:43 to 0:14:57( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the north, it finds its particular navigation invigorated; and while it contributes in different ways to nourish and increase the general mass of the national navigation, it looks forward to the

Bob Corker

0:14:57 to 0:15:14( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: protection of a maritime strength to which itself is unequally adapted. the east, in a like intercourse with the west, already finds, and in the progressive improvement of interior communications by land

Bob Corker

0:15:14 to 0:15:31( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and water will more and more find, a valuable vent for the commodities which it brings from abroad or manufactures at home. the west derives from the east supplies requisite to its growth and comfort, and

Bob Corker

0:15:31 to 0:15:49( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: what is perhaps of still greater consequence, it must of necessity owe the secure enjoyment of indispensable outlets for its own productions to the weight, influence, and the future maritime strength of the

Bob Corker

0:15:49 to 0:16:06( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: atlantic side of the union, directed by an indissoluble community of interest as one nation. any other tenure by which the west can hold this essential advantage, whether derived from its own separate

Bob Corker

0:16:06 to 0:16:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: strength or from an apostate and unnatural connection with any foreign power, must be intrinsically precarious. while, then, every part of our country thus feels an immediate and particular interest in

Bob Corker

0:16:23 to 0:16:38( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: union, all the parts combined cannot fail to find in the united mass of means and efforts greater strength, greater resource, proportionably greater security from external danger, a less frequent interruption

Bob Corker

0:16:38 to 0:16:55( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of their peace by foreign nations, and, what is of inestimable value, they must derive from union an exemption from those broils and wars between themselves which so frequently afflict neighboring countries

Bob Corker

0:16:55 to 0:17:10( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: not tied together by the same governments, which their own rivalships alone would be sufficient to produce, but which opposite foreign alliances, attachments, and intrigues would stimulate and embitter.~

Bob Corker

0:17:10 to 0:17:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: hence, likewise, they will avoid the necessity of those overgrown military establishments which, under any form of government, are inauspicious to liberty and which are to be regarded as particularly

Bob Corker

0:17:29 to 0:17:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: hostile to republican liberty. in this sense, it is that your union ought to be considered as a main prop of your liberty and that the love of the one ought to endear to you the preservation of the other.

Bob Corker

0:17:46 to 0:18:07( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: these considerations speak a persuasive language to every reflecting and virtuous mind and exhibit the continuance of the union as a primary object of patriotic desire. is there a doubt whether a common

Bob Corker

0:18:07 to 0:18:26( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: government can embrace so large a sphere? let experience solve it. to listen to mere speculation in such a case were criminal. in such a case were criminal. we are authorized to hope that a proper organization

Bob Corker

0:18:26 to 0:18:40( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the whole, with the auxiliary agency of governments for the respective subdivisions, will afford a happy issue to the experiment. it is well worth a fair and full experiment. with such powerful and obvious

Bob Corker

0:18:40 to 0:18:58( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: motives to union affecting all parts of our country, while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability, there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who, in any quarter,

Bob Corker

0:18:58 to 0:19:12( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: may endeavor to weaken its hands. in contemplating the causes which may disturb our union, it occurs as matter of serious concern that any ground should have been furnished for characterizing parties

Bob Corker

0:19:12 to 0:19:32( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: by geographical discriminations -- northern and southern, atlantic and western -- whence designing men may endeavor to excite a belief that there is a real difference of local interests and views. one

Bob Corker

0:19:32 to 0:19:48( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the expedients of party to acquire influence within particular districts is to misrepresent the opinions and aims of other districts. you cannot shield yourselves too much against the jealousies and

Bob Corker

0:19:48 to 0:20:06( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: heartburnings which spring from these misrepresentations; they tend to render alien to each other those who ought to be bound together by fraternal affection. the inhabitants of our western country have

Bob Corker

0:20:06 to 0:20:20( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: lately had a useful lesson on this head. they have seen in the negotiation by the executive and in the unanimous ratification by the senate of the treaty with spain, and in the universal satisfaction at that

Bob Corker

0:20:20 to 0:20:35( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: event throughout the united states, a decisive proof how unfounded were the suspicions propagated among them of a policy in the general government and in the atlantic states unfriendly to their interests

Bob Corker

0:20:35 to 0:20:52( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: in regard to the mississippi. they have been witnesses to the formation of two treaties -- that with great britain and that with spain -- which secure to them everything they could desire in respect to

Bob Corker

0:20:52 to 0:21:08( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: our foreign relations toward confirming their prosperity. will it not be their wisdom to rely for the preservation of these advantages on the union by which they were procured? will they not henceforth

Bob Corker

0:21:08 to 0:21:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: be deaf to those advisors, if such there are, who would sever them from their brethren and connect them with aliens? to the efficacy and permanency of your union, a government for the whole is indispensable.

Bob Corker

0:21:23 to 0:21:37( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: no alliances, however strict, between the parts can be an adequate substitute. they must inevitably experience the infractions and interruptions which all alliances in all times have experienced.

Bob Corker

0:21:37 to 0:21:56( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: sensible of this momentous truth, you have improved upon your first essay by the adoption of a constitution of government, better calculated than your former, for an intimate union and for the efficacious

Bob Corker

0:21:56 to 0:22:14( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: management of your common concerns. this government, the offspring of our own choice, uninfluenced and unawed, adopted upon full investigation and mature deliberation completely free in its principles, in the

Bob Corker

0:22:14 to 0:22:28( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: distribution of its powers, uniting security with energy, and containing within itself a provision for its own amendment, has a just claim to your confidence and your support. respect for its authority,

Bob Corker

0:22:28 to 0:22:45( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its measures, are duties enjoined by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. the basis of our political systems is the right of the people to make and to

Bob Corker

0:22:45 to 0:23:00( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: alter their constitutions of government. but the constitution which at any time exists, till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people, is sacredly obligatory upon all. the very idea

Bob Corker

0:23:00 to 0:23:16( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the power and the right of the people to establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the established government. all obstructions to the execution of the laws, all combinations

Bob Corker

0:23:16 to 0:23:36( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and associations, under whatever plausible character, with the real design to direct, control, counteract, or awe the regular deliberation and action of the constituted authorities, are destructive of this

Bob Corker

0:23:36 to 0:23:52( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: fundamental principle and of fatal tendency. they serve to organize faction; to give it an artificial and extraordinary force; to put in the place of the delegated will of the nation the will of a party,

Bob Corker

0:23:52 to 0:24:10( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: often a small but artful and enterprising minority of the community; and, according to the alternate triumphs of different parties, to make the public administration the mirror of the ill-concerted and

Bob Corker

0:24:10 to 0:24:24( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: incongruous projects of faction rather than the organ of consistent and wholesome plans digested by common counsels and modified by mutual interests. however combinations or associations of the above

Bob Corker

0:24:24 to 0:24:40( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: description may now and then answer popular ends, they are likely, in the course of time and things, to become potent engines by which cunning, ambitious, and unprincipled men will be enabled to subvert

Bob Corker

0:24:40 to 0:24:55( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the power of the people and to usurp for themselves the reins of government, destroying afterwards the very engines which have lifted them to unjust dominion. toward the preservation of your government

Bob Corker

0:24:55 to 0:25:11( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and the permanency of your present happy state, it is requisite not only that you steadily discountenance irregular oppositions to its acknowledged authority, but also that you resist with care

Bob Corker

0:25:11 to 0:25:26( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the spirit of innovation upon its principles, however specious the pretexts. one method of assault may be to effect, in the forms of the constitution, alterations which will impair the energy of the

Bob Corker

0:25:26 to 0:25:42( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: system and, thus, to undermine what cannot be directly overthrown. in all the changes to which you may be invited, remember that time and habit are at least as necessary to fix the true character of

Bob Corker

0:25:42 to 0:26:00( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: governments as of other human institutions; that experience is the surest standard by which to test the real tendency of the existing constitution of a country; that facility in changes upon the credit

Bob Corker

0:26:00 to 0:26:14( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of mere hypothesis and opinion exposes to perpetual change from the endless variety of hypothesis and opinion; and remember especially, that for the efficient management of your common interests in a

Bob Corker

0:26:14 to 0:26:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: country so extensive as ours, a government of as much vigor as is consistent with the perfect security of liberty is indispensable. liberty itself will find in such a government, with powers properly

Bob Corker

0:26:29 to 0:26:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: distributed and adjusted, its surest guardian. it is, indeed, little else than a name where the government is too feeble to withstand the enterprises of faction, to confine each member of the society

Bob Corker

0:26:46 to 0:27:02( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: within the limits prescribed by the laws, and to maintain all in the secure and tranquil enjoyment of the rights of person and property. i have already intimated to you the danger of parties in the state

Bob Corker

0:27:02 to 0:27:13( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: with particular reference to the founding of them on geographical discriminations. let me now take a more comprehensive view and warn you in the most solemn manner against the baneful effects of the

Bob Corker

0:27:13 to 0:27:28( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: spirit of party generally. this spirit, unfortunately, is inseparable from our nature, having its root in the strongest passions of the human mind. it exists under different shapes in all governments,

Bob Corker

0:27:28 to 0:27:47( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: more or less stifled, controlled, or repressed; but in those of the popular form, it is seen in its greatest rankness and is truly their worst enemy. the alternate domination of one faction over

Bob Corker

0:27:47 to 0:28:06( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: another, sharpened by the spirit of revenge natural to party dissension, which in different ages and countries has perpetrated the most horrid enormities, is itself a frightful despotism. but this leads at length

Bob Corker

0:28:06 to 0:28:22( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to a more formal and permanent despotism. the disorders and miseries which result gradually incline the minds of men to seek security and repose in the absolute power of an individual; and, sooner or

Bob Corker

0:28:22 to 0:28:36( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: later, the chief of some prevailing faction, more able or more fortunate than his competitors, turns this disposition to the purpose of his own elevation on the ruins of public liberty. without looking forward

Bob Corker

0:28:36 to 0:28:53( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to an extremity of this kind (which nevertheless ought not to be entirely out of sight), the common and continual mischiefs of the spirit of party are sufficient to make it the interest and duty

Bob Corker

0:28:53 to 0:29:09( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of a wise people to discourage and restrain it. it serves always to distract the public councils and enfeeble the public administration. it agitates the community with ill-founded jealousies and false

Bob Corker

0:29:09 to 0:29:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: alarms; kindles the animosity of one part against another; foments occasionally riot and insurrection. it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption, which find a facilitated access to the

Bob Corker

0:29:23 to 0:29:41( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: government itself through the channels of party passion. thus, the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another. there is an opinion that parties in free countries

Bob Corker

0:29:41 to 0:29:57( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: are useful checks upon the administration of the government and serve to keep alive the spirit of liberty. this, within certain limits, is probably true; and in governments of a monarchial cast,

Bob Corker

0:29:57 to 0:30:13( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: patriotism may look with indulgence, if not with favor, upon the spirit of party. but in those of the popular character, in governments purely elective, it is a spirit not to be encouraged. from their

Bob Corker

0:30:13 to 0:30:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: natural tendency, it is certain there will always be enough of that spirit for every salutary purpose; and there being constant danger of excess, the effort ought to be, by force of public opinion, to

Bob Corker

0:30:29 to 0:30:41( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: mitigate and assuage it. a fire not to be quenched, it demands a uniform vigilance to prevent its bursting into a flame, lest instead of warming, it should consume. it is important, likewise, that the

Bob Corker

0:30:41 to 0:30:57( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: habits of thinking in a free country should inspire caution in those entrusted with its administration to confine themselves within their respective constitutional spheres, avoiding in the exercise of the

Bob Corker

0:30:57 to 0:31:12( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: powers of one department to encroach upon another.~ tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one and, thus, to create, whatever the form of government, a real despotism. a just estimate of that

Bob Corker

0:31:12 to 0:31:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: love of power and proneness to abuse it, which predominates in the human heart, is sufficient to satisfy us of the truth of this position. the necessity of reciprocal checks in the exercise of political

Bob Corker

0:31:23 to 0:31:45( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: power, by dividing and distributing it into different depositories and constituting each the guardian of the public weal against invasions by the others, has been evinced by experiments ancient and modern,

Bob Corker

0:31:45 to 0:32:05( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: some of them in our country and under our own eyes. to preserve them must be as necessary as to institute them. if, in the opinion of the people, the distribution or modification of the constitutional

Bob Corker

0:32:05 to 0:32:20( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: powers be in any particular wrong, let it be corrected by an amendment in the way which the constitution designates. but let there be no change by usurpation; for though this, in one instance, may be the

Bob Corker

0:32:20 to 0:32:44( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: instrument of good, it is the customary weapon by which free governments are destroyed. the precedent must always greatly overbalance in permanent evil any partial or transient benefit which the use can

Bob Corker

0:32:44 to 0:33:01( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: at any time yield. of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports. in vain would that man claim the tribute of patriotism

Bob Corker

0:33:01 to 0:33:18( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: who should labor to subvert these great pillars of human happiness -- these firmest props of the duties of men and citizens. the mere politician, equally with the pious man, ought to respect and to

Bob Corker

0:33:18 to 0:33:37( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: cherish them. a volume could not trace all their connections with private and public felicity. let it simply be asked, where is the security for property, for reputation, for life, if the sense of

Bob Corker

0:33:37 to 0:33:52( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: religious obligation desert the oaths which are the instruments of investigation in courts of justice? and let us with caution indulge the supposition that morality can be maintained without religion.

Bob Corker

0:33:52 to 0:34:13( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: whatever may be conceded to the influence of refined education on minds of peculiar structure, reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious

Bob Corker

0:34:13 to 0:34:28( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: principle. it is substantially true that virtue or morality is a necessary spring of popular government. the rule, indeed, extends with more or less force to every species of free government. who

Bob Corker

0:34:28 to 0:34:41( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: that is a sincere friend to it can look with indifference upon attempts to shake the foundation of the fabric? promote, then, as an object of primary importance, institutions for the general diffusion of

0:34:41 to 0:35:00( Edit History Discussion )

knowledge. in proportion as the structure of a government gives force to public opinion, it is essential that public opinion should be enlightened. as a very important source of strength and security,

0:35:00 to 0:35:15( Edit History Discussion )

cherish public credit. one method of preserving it is to use it as sparingly as possible, avoiding occasions of expense by cultivating peace, but remembering also that timely disbursements to prepare

0:35:15 to 0:35:34( Edit History Discussion )

for danger frequently prevent much greater disbursements to repel it; avoiding, likewise the accumulation of debt, not only by shunning occasions of expense but by vigorous exertions in time of peace

0:35:34 to 0:35:51( Edit History Discussion )

to discharge the debts which unavoidable wars have occasioned, not ungenerously throwing upon posterity the burden which we ourselves ought to bear. the execution of these maxims belongs to your representatives;

0:35:51 to 0:36:07( Edit History Discussion )

but it is necessary that public opinion should cooperate. to facilitate to them the performance of their duty, it is essential that you should practically bear in mind that toward the payment of debts

0:36:07 to 0:36:19( Edit History Discussion )

there must be revenue; that to have revenue there must be taxes; that no taxes can be devised which are not more or less inconvenient and unpleasant; that the intrinsic embarrassment inseparable from

0:36:19 to 0:36:38( Edit History Discussion )

the selection of the proper objects (which is always a choice of difficulties) ought to be a decisive motive for a candid construction of the conduct of the government in making it and for a spirit of

0:36:38 to 0:36:55( Edit History Discussion )

acquiescence in the measures for obtaining revenue, which the public exigencies may at any time dictate. observe good faith and justice toward all nations. cultivate peace and harmony with all. religion

0:36:55 to 0:37:10( Edit History Discussion )

and morality enjoin this conduct. and can it be that good policy does not equally enjoin it? it will be worthy of a free, enlightened, and, at no distant period, a great nation to give to mankind the

0:37:10 to 0:37:25( Edit History Discussion )

magnanimous and too novel example of a people always guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. who can doubt that in the course of time and things the fruits of such a plan would richly repay

0:37:25 to 0:37:45( Edit History Discussion )

any temporary advantages which might be lost by a steady adherence to it? can it be that providence has not connected the permanent felicity of a nation with its virtue? the experiment, at least,

0:37:45 to 0:38:00( Edit History Discussion )

is recommended by every sentiment which ennobles human nature. alas! is it rendered impossible by its vices? in the execution of such a plan, nothing is more essential than that permanent, inveterate

0:38:00 to 0:38:14( Edit History Discussion )

antipathies against particular nations and passionate attachments for others should be excluded, and that in place of them, just and amicable feelings toward all should be cultivated. the nation which

0:38:14 to 0:38:33( Edit History Discussion )

indulges toward another an habitual hatred or an habitual fondness is, in some degree, a slave. it is a slave to its animosity or to its affection, either of which is sufficient to lead it astray from

Bob Corker

0:38:33 to 0:38:54( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: its duty and its interest. antipathy in one nation against another disposes each more readily to offer insult and injury, to lay hold of slight causes of umbrage, and to be haughty and intractable when

Bob Corker

0:38:54 to 0:39:08( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: accidental or trifling occasions of dispute occur. hence frequent collisions, obstinate, envenomed, and bloody contests. the nation prompted by ill will and resentment sometimes impels to war the

Bob Corker

0:39:08 to 0:39:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: government, contrary to the best calculations of policy. the government sometimes participates in the national propensity and adopts through passion what reason would reject. at other times it makes the animosity

Bob Corker

0:39:23 to 0:39:39( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the nation subservient to projects of hostility, instigated by pride, ambition, and other sinister and pernicious motives. the peace often, sometimes perhaps the liberty, of nations has been

Bob Corker

0:39:39 to 0:39:56( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the victim. so, likewise, a passionate attachment of one nation for another produces a variety of evils. sympathy for the favorite nation, facilitating the illusion of an imaginary common interest

Bob Corker

0:39:56 to 0:40:11( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: in cases where no real common interest exists, and infusing into one the enmities of the other, betrays the former into a participation in the quarrels and wars of the latter without adequate inducement

Bob Corker

0:40:11 to 0:40:31( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: or justification. it leads also to concessions to the favorite nation of privileges denied to others, which is apt doubly to injure the nation making the concessions by unnecessarily parting with what

Bob Corker

0:40:31 to 0:40:46( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: ought to have been retained and by exciting jealousy, ill will, and a disposition to retaliate in the parties from whom equal privileges are withheld; and it gives to ambitious, corrupted, or deluded citizens

Bob Corker

0:40:46 to 0:41:12( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: (who devote themselves to the favorite nation) facility to betray or sacrifice the interests of their own country without odium, sometimes even with popularity, gilding with the appearances of a virtuous

Bob Corker

0:41:12 to 0:41:23( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: sense of obligation, a commendable deference for public opinion, or a laudable zeal for public good the base or foolish compliances of ambition, corruption, or infatuation. as avenues to foreign influence

Bob Corker

0:41:23 to 0:41:36( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: in innumerable ways, such attachments are particularly alarming to the truly enlightened and independent patriot. how many opportunities do they afford to tamper with domestic factions, to practice the

Bob Corker

0:41:36 to 0:41:53( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: arts of seduction, to mislead public opinion, to influence or awe the public councils! such an attachment of a small or weak toward a great and powerful nation dooms the former to be the satellite

Bob Corker

0:41:53 to 0:42:07( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of the latter. against the insidious wiles of foreign influence (i conjure you to believe me, fellow citizens) the jealousy of a free people ought to be constantly awake, since history and experience

Bob Corker

0:42:07 to 0:42:28( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government. but that jealousy, to be useful, must be impartial, else it becomes the instrument of the very influence

Bob Corker

0:42:28 to 0:42:42( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to be avoided instead of a defense against it. excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side and serve to veil

Bob Corker

0:42:42 to 0:43:01( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and even second the arts of influence on the other. real patriots, who may resist the intrigues of the favorite, are liable to become suspected and odious, while its tools and dupes usurp the applause

Bob Corker

0:43:01 to 0:43:27( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and confidence of the people to surrender their interests. the great rule of conduct for us in regard to foreign nations is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political

Bob Corker

0:43:27 to 0:43:41( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: connection as possible. so far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. here let us stop. europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none or

Bob Corker

0:43:41 to 0:43:55( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: a very remote relation. hence, she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves by artificial

0:43:55 to 0:44:10( Edit History Discussion )

ties in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities. our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue

0:44:10 to 0:44:24( Edit History Discussion )

a different course. if we remain one people under an efficient government, the period is not far off when we may defy material injury from external annoyance; when we may take such an attitude as will cause

0:44:24 to 0:44:42( Edit History Discussion )

the neutrality we may at any time resolve upon to be scrupulously respected; when belligerent nations, under the impossibility of making acquisitions upon us, will not lightly hazard the giving

0:44:42 to 0:44:58( Edit History Discussion )

us provocation; when we may choose peace or war, as our interest, guided by justice, shall counsel. why forego the advantages of so peculiar a situation? why quit our own to stand upon foreign ground?

0:44:58 to 0:45:12( Edit History Discussion )

why, by interweaving our destiny with that of any part of europe, entangle our peace and prosperity in the toils of european ambition, rivalship, interest, humor, or caprice? it is our true policy to

0:45:12 to 0:45:30( Edit History Discussion )

steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world, so far, i mean, as we are now at liberty to do it; for let me not be understood as capable of patronizing infidelity to existing

0:45:30 to 0:45:46( Edit History Discussion )

engagements. i hold the maxim no less applicable to public than to private affairs that honesty is always the best policy. i repeat, therefore, let those engagements be observed in their genuine sense.

0:45:46 to 0:46:03( Edit History Discussion )

but, in my opinion, it is unnecessary and would be unwise to extend them.~ taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary

0:46:03 to 0:46:18( Edit History Discussion )

alliances for extraordinary emergencies. harmony and a liberal intercourse with all nations are recommended by policy, humanity, and interest. but even our commercial policy should hold an equal and impartial

Bob Corker

0:46:18 to 0:46:31( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: hand, neither seeking nor granting exclusive favors or preferences; consulting the natural course of things; diffusing and diversifying by gentle means the streams of commerce, but forcing nothing; establishing

Bob Corker

0:46:31 to 0:46:48( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: with powers so disposed, in order to give trade a stable course, to define the rights of our merchants, and to enable the government to support them, conventional rules of intercourse, the best that

Bob Corker

0:46:48 to 0:47:06( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: present circumstances and mutual opinion will permit, but temporary and liable to be, from time to time, abandoned or varied as experience and circumstances shall dictate; constantly keeping in view that

Bob Corker

0:47:06 to 0:47:19( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: it is folly in one nation to look for disinterested favors from another; that it must pay with a portion of its independence for whatever it may accept under that character; that, by such acceptance,

Bob Corker

0:47:19 to 0:47:38( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: it may place itself in the condition of having given equivalents for nominal favors and yet of being reproached with ingratitude for not giving more. there can be no greater error than to expect

Bob Corker

0:47:38 to 0:47:53( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: or calculate upon real favors from nation to nation. it is an illusion which experience must cure, which a just pride ought to discard. in offering to you, my countrymen, these counsels of an old and

Bob Corker

0:47:53 to 0:48:10( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: affectionate friend, i dare not hope they will make the strong and lasting impression i could wish -- that they will control the usual current of the passions or prevent our nation from running the course

Bob Corker

0:48:10 to 0:48:35( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: which has hitherto marked the destiny of nations. but if i may even flatter myself that they may be productive of some partial benefit, some occasional good -- that they may now and then recur to moderate

Bob Corker

0:48:35 to 0:48:52( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the fury of party spirit, to warn against the mischiefs of foreign intrigue, to guard against the impostures of pretended patriotism -- this hope will be a full recompense for the solicitude for your

Bob Corker

0:48:52 to 0:49:10( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: welfare by which they have been dictated. how far in the discharge of my official duties i have been guided by the principles which have been delineated the public records and other evidences of my

Bob Corker

0:49:10 to 0:49:27( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: conduct must witness to you and to the world. to myself, the assurance of my own conscience is that i have at least believed myself to be guided by them. in relation to the still-subsisting war in europe,

Bob Corker

0:49:27 to 0:49:45( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: my proclamation of the 22nd of april, 1793, is the index to my plan. sanctioned by your approving voice and by that of your representatives in both houses of congress, the spirit of that measure has continually

Bob Corker

0:49:45 to 0:49:59( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: governed me, uninfluenced by any attempts to deter or divert me from it. after deliberate examination, with the aid of the best lights i could obtain, i was well satisfied that our country, under

Bob Corker

0:49:59 to 0:50:18( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: all the circumstances of the case, had a right to take, and was bound in duty and interest to take, a neutral position. having taken it, i determined, as far as should depend upon me, to maintain it

Bob Corker

0:50:18 to 0:50:39( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: with moderation, perseverance, and firmness. the considerations which respect the right to hold this conduct it is not necessary on this occasion to detail. i will only observe that, according

Bob Corker

0:50:39 to 0:50:55( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: to my understanding of the matter, that right, so far from being denied by any of the belligerent powers, has been virtually admitted by all. the duty of holding a neutral conduct may be inferred, without

Bob Corker

0:50:55 to 0:51:12( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: anything more, from the obligation which justice and humanity impose on every nation, in cases in which it is free to act, to maintain inviolate the relations of peace and amity toward other nations.

Bob Corker

0:51:12 to 0:51:29( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the inducements of interest for observing that conduct will best be referred to your own reflections and experience. with me, a predominant motive has been to endeavor to gain time to our country to settle

Bob Corker

0:51:29 to 0:51:50( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: and mature its yet recent institutions and to progress, without interruption, to that degree of strength and consistency which is necessary to give it, humanly speaking, the command of its own fortunes.

Bob Corker

0:51:50 to 0:52:04( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: though in reviewing the incidents of my administration i am unconscious of intentional error, i am nevertheless too sensible of my defects not to think it probable that i may have committed many errors.

Bob Corker

0:52:04 to 0:52:19( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: whatever they may be, i fervently beseech the almighty to avert or mitigate the evils to which they may tend. i shall also carry with me the hope that my country will never cease to view them with

Bob Corker

0:52:19 to 0:52:40( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: indulgence and that, after 45 years of my life dedicated to its service with an upright zeal, the faults of incompetent abilities will be consigned to oblivion, as myself must soon be to the mansions

Bob Corker

0:52:40 to 0:52:59( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: of rest. relying on its kindness in this, as in other things, and actuated by that fervent love toward it, which is so natural to a man who views in it the native soil of himself and his progenitors

Bob Corker

0:52:59 to 0:53:18( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: for several generations, i anticipate with pleasing expectation that retreat in which i promise myself to realize, without alloy, the sweet enjoyment of partaking in the midst of my fellow citizens

Bob Corker

0:53:18 to 0:53:58( Edit History Discussion )

Bob Corker: the benign influence of good laws under a free government -- the ever-favorite object of my heart, and the happy reward, as i trust, of our mutual cares, labors, and dangers. george washington. united

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